- 1000. Premises Liability—Essential Factual Elements
- 1001. Basic Duty of Care
- 1002. Extent of Control Over Premises Area
- 1003. Unsafe Conditions
- 1004. Obviously Unsafe Conditions
- 1005. Business Proprietor’s Liability for the Negligent/Intentional/Criminal Conduct of Others
- 1006. Landlord’s Duty
- 1007. Sidewalk Abutting Property
- 1008. Liability for Adjacent Altered Sidewalk—Essential Factual Elements
- 1009A. Liability to Employees of Independent Contractors for Unsafe Concealed Conditions
- 1009B. Liability to Employees of Independent Contractors for Unsafe Conditions—Retained Control
- 1009C. Reserved for Future Use
- 1009D. Liability to Employees of Independent Contractors for Unsafe Conditions—Defective Equipment
- 1010. Affirmative Defense—Recreation Immunity (Civ. Code, § 846)
- 1011. Constructive Notice Regarding Dangerous Conditions on Property
- 1012. Knowledge of Employee Imputed to Owner
- 1013–1099. Reserved for Future Use
- VF-1000. Premises Liability—Comparative Negligence of Others Not at Issue
- VF-1001. Premises Liability—Affirmative Defense—Recreation Immunity
- VF-1002. Premises Liability—Comparative Fault of Plaintiff at Issue
- VF-1003–VF-1099. Reserved for Future Use”
Inadequate Security, Visitor & Tenants' Rights
Renting a residential or commercial space is an important part of life. Visiting a bar or nightclub is also an experience where you should be made to feel safe as a visitor. The need for the feeling of security within the property should be universal. Also, it should get buffeted with good faith by the owner.
However, in many cases, the landlord or property owner does not fulfill his or her obligations. Sometimes they break their implied promise to their visitors and tenants. In fact, this can allow a bad situation to unfold.
- Such can be the case when dealing with issues related to criminal acts.
Case precedent is clear:
- Landlords are not allowed to be negligent regarding the security of their property.
What Should Tenants or Visitors Do If Assaulted Ab Initio?
The term ab initio is a Latin term that means "from the very start." By law, tenants and visitors have the opportunity to present evidence the landlord knew their property was unsafe.
- In the case of Tenants
Tenants and visitors to their property who are attacked or injured have basically the same rights and burdens of proof. However, tenants do have additional contractual remedies available to them that are not afforded to visitors to the structure of the property.
In the Case of Guests?
Guests can rely on California laws requiring the property owner to make guests safe from known dangers at or near the property.
What Burden Must a Guest or Tenant Show?
Both guests and tenants must show the landlord did nothing to remedy. But unlike a tenant, a visitor could sue both the renter and the landlord for rape or assault.
- The California Department of Consumer Affairs states the tenant has a responsibility to inspect (Source.) So they should check out the area and the apartment before moving in.
- But beyond that, the landlord must keep the premises safe for occupation.
- So if there is a dangerous public activity like gangs, rapes, and drugs, this raises a red flag.
And if the landlord fails to take steps to provide security, then you probably have a case. But if the prospective tenant knew the area was dangerous, this could hamper the case. (Learn how to prove a case here.)
Is the Property/Location Even Safe For Occupancy?
There can be many cases in which the property can become deemed unsafe and requires action. For example, if there was a robbery or shooting on the premises. Most of the time, this means the landlord got notified.
- So what if the owner refused to make any substantive changes? If that is the case, any further issues could be their responsibility. Of course, when a tenant has become victimized due to such actions, or inactions, they should not have to fight alone.
What About Negligent Hiring of Security?
Having a bad bouncer or chaperone is another form of negligent security. Except for this time, the employing owner or landlord failed to do an adequate background check or allowed bouncer attacks to take place for some time. So this is called negligent hiring, and we can help you sue for that.
What Are Some Methods Visitors and Tenants Can Use to Try and Obviate Risks of Rapes or Assaults on Property?
So this is not something most people think about.
- But there are various free online tools.
- And even the local police can provide crime statistic data (Go here for LAPD "Crime and Statistical Data.)
Your job is to mitigate your potential risks by researching the zip code and locale. So in that case, there is never any need to sue. And this is because will you never became a victim.
Gatherings at night clubs or bars are a way to have fun with a friend or group of friends. But a barroom brawl or assault was never on anyone's list, right? Also, patrons expect bouncers to keep order and the building to be safe.
There are many legal theories lawyers use to prove a case like this. But first, you need to understand some basics, so here we go.
Constructive knowledge is the term that indicates such knowledge. But an assessment of what had been happening around the business remains at issue.
Failing to provide adequate security doesn't just mean hiring a guard. It also means guarding against dangerous conditions on your property.
- Consuming alcohol diminishes your inhibitions, and this can lead to problems like tripping at a bar.
- Slipping and falling on liquid, a chair, or table in a high traffic area of an eatery is a typical scenario we also see.
- But crimes and bouncer assaults are also a risk of harm to customers.
Type of harm suffered in negligence security cases includes:
- Head trauma
- Broken bones or sprains.
These types of incidents happen due to a defect or failure by the property owner or management. So they fail to maintain the building securely and adequately.
The other types of harm that can occur may include criminal conduct in the form of:
- Rape, and in rare cases, death.
What Is The Main Function of Security Guards?
Most bouncer attack lawyers will tell you that patrons of a nightclub or bar usually are not concerned with criminal dangers. After all, these establishments typically have security guards, right? The bouncer is another name for "private guard."
And their job is to protect you and the club, or bar, etc. If there is a scuffle, they must peacefully try to diffuse the situation.
- Bouncers are usually large men with presence enough to keep patrons from misbehaving. (Read more here.)
So the bouncer is typically the employee who will have contact and cooperate with the police. So the idea is that the bouncer helps police in subduing or responding to a potential crime. But the bouncer is not usually a sworn peace officer.
Observe, report, and refrain from using emotions are the duties of a bouncer. And this is no easy task when dealing with patrons who may misbehave.
Sometimes customers are out of line and want to test their mixed martial arts skills on the bouncer or another visitor. In other cases, the security guard can step over the edge of their intended functions.
So now, rather than controlling dangerous situations, the bouncer makes it worse. If so, liability attaches.
What Are Some Examples of Bouncer Assaults?
News stories about violent bouncers are nothing new. Most happened in situations where bouncers assaulted patrons of nightclubs or bars.
- One occurred in Worcester, Massachusetts, where a security guard was arrested for armed robbery, kidnapping, along with assault and battery.
In that case, a video went viral on the internet. Witnesses saw the security guard/bouncer punch the patron. Next, he robbed him in the bathroom of a strip club. The bouncer later said he believed the man was dealing drugs in the club.
- An incident occurred in Muhlenberg Township, Pennsylvania, in a night club saw a bouncer kick a person out of the club. This resulted in the patron hitting his head on the sidewalk.
The man required emergency surgery. The charges were assault and endangerment after his arrest.
Are Even Vets Not Off Limits?
- In Lawton Kansas, a veteran was attacked by a bouncer in a night club. The former soldier was beaten to the point that his face was fractured.
He required facial reconstructive surgery after being injured by an improvised explosive device. Police suspected this bouncer of two similar assaults that occurred at the same club!
- In Henderson, Kentucky, a patron ended up dead after complaining about his drink.
- Police observed a photo that was taken the same night as the altercation, where one of the security team can be seen holding a baton. (Read More Here.)
Police believed it was the same baton witnesses claim saw striking the man who had complained about his drink. The bouncer was arrested, charged with murder and released on $50,000 bail.
- Bouncers harming patron can be charged criminally. And the injured patron may be able to bring a lawsuit against the bouncer and the night club or bar.
- The bar or night club owner can be held liable for negligent infliction of emotional distress, negligent entrustment (examples include a road rage employee given a company vehicle), negligent hiring, negligent retention, and even dram shop. (depending on your jurisdiction.)
- In the event of death, all defendants can face a wrongful death lawsuit.
What is Security Negligence?
When businesses fail to provide the needed security to their customers, it's said that they showed negligence towards security measures. A business that has the public coming within its premises has to offer protection to its customers.
In other words, if it is within the knowledge of the business that crimes or even a trip and fall can occur, it becomes a responsibility for business to protect its patrons.
If crime causes harm to the patron or his personal property, the business will become held liable. What about when a gang-banger shoots up a club or a disco? Well, if the owner knows it's a possibility, it is a foreseeable crime.
In other words, was there a history or knowledge that gang-bangers have caused trouble in the area? If so, liability attaches.
From foreseeability we mean that it was in the knowledge of the business (the runners of the business) that a crime can take place.
Negligent security happens when bouncers or owners and employees do not adequately perform their functions. So the result is a patron being harmed.
Below are some of the most common claims against establishments.
- The security guard or bouncer failed to take action.
- The patron was not protected from being harmed.
- Knowledge of violence by the owner of crimes, or violent behavior of the bouncer can also be used when a bouncer attacks a patron.
What is Owner Premises Liability?
When a guest of a nightclub or bar is hurt, under the legal theory of premises liability, premises liability in the state of California outlines that the owner of a property must provide reasonably safe conditions. And this duty includes preventing any foreseeable harm to any visitor to the business.
Negligent actions by the employees of a bar or nightclub owner in the performance of their duties can make them liable to you. But you must suffer harm. That is what gives rise to your money damages award.
- For example, liability could exist because security had been alerted to a slippery spill, but it was not cleaned up quickly.
- So now, another patron has a slip and fall incident with serious injuries.
- In that case, the owner could be held liable for negligent premises liability.
What is the Stance of Defense Counsel?
Attorneys for the defense will almost always argue they did not know about any potential problem. They will come up with a litany of excuses to avoid paying for the injuries.
So victims at the bar, nightclub, or regular old corporate offices have to prove the case. We just discussed that courts would look for whether or not a duty is owed. The defense will argue that even if the task was breached, it was not foreseeable.
So no liability lies even if someone was hurt from a crime. Plus, the mere fact a crime took place while you were hanging out matters not since it was not a PSI.
If those basic things are not present, the jury instructions will provide the framework to the trier of fact to find zero or partial liability.
“Series 1000 – Premises Liability
What's The Foreseeability Of Crime Test?
Whether the victim will win in a case where a third party committed a crime against you, majorly depends on proving the Foreseeability of the crime. Most of this test comes from case law. But some courts have different thresholds and variations of this test in California.
But none the less, this is the threshold you must meet. And if not, the court could dismiss your case with or without prejudice to you re-filing the case.
So naturally, a real personal injury warrior will note that this is a critical element. This must become nailed down before you consider moving forward with your lawsuit. From Foreseeability, we mean that it was in the knowledge of the business (the runners of the company) that a crime can take place at or near the site.
What About the Businesses' Knowledge of Prior Crimes or Accidents to Show Foreseeability?
So it's implied sometimes that the business knew or should have known about a crime or other dangers on the premises.
Examples of noncriminal events giving rise to landlord liability could be where could be:
- Falling objects. For example, a ceiling fixture breaking loose from its anchors and falling on your head.
- The trash in a parking area. This type of rubbish can hide or block liquid and grease, causing a slip, trip, and fall case.
But how do you show the owner knew or should have known about the criminal or civil dangers to guests. Well, one way is to show they understood the ceiling was collapsing, or the trash in the garage was a fall hazard. However, most of the time, it is not that easy. Most of the time, we lawyers use the concept of constructive or implied knowledge.
- Constructive knowledge is the term that indicates such understanding. It is to become assessed in these cases what had been happening around the business in the past.
Any crime that took place in the past that indicated that a crime might take place is enough reason for a business to take security measures.
How recently a crime had taken place in the vicinity of the business where the victim has suffered harm. This is also of importance in deciding the Foreseeability of the crime.
Prior knowledge Test - Used to Prove:
- Falling objects
- Drowning in a public or private pool
- Slipping, tripping and falling on public or private sidewalks
- Various burn injuries in your workplace
- Negligent Maintenance of roadway crashes, etc.
Yes, this is key in most cases. So liability could lie if the incident that harmed you was similar to ones that had taken place in the past. But they must be in the proximity of the business or premises. It could be said the owner should have foreseen similar scenarios in the future.
Also discussed below is another crucial factor when proving the Foreseeability of a crime or even a slippery floor case. Prior Similar Incidents are what lawyers look for to sue.
- What are Prior Similar Incidents or PSI?
The similarity between the incidents that took place in the past and the plaintiff case remains essential. PSI or prior similar incidents can show it was avoidable if not but for owner negligence.
Similarity Of Cases And Foreseeability
There is quite a debate and controversy in many court cases over PSI. Different state judges are of different opinions.
- Some judges believe that only natural and similar crimes could allow a business to foresee an imminent danger. Under this jurisdictional split, the company is liable if there was a very same type of crime, for example. Even if it's a high crime area, a rape of a female patron next door will not give rise to knowledge, criminals will assault a male customer at your business, for example.
So if, for example, a past a robbery had taken place in the nearby store, that would not instantly prove security negligence unless there was a similar robbery at your location.
But if it's not similar enough, you can lose. So to prove the Foreseeability of the crime, it had to be similar in nature. Get it so far?
PSI theory accepted by all courts?
- No! Some courts in California contradict this theory of PSI. These judges say even if the crime is dissimilar, the fact there was a high crime at all was enough notice to necessitate security. But some courts have given decisions in the favor victims even in dissimilar cases.
What is The Stance Of The Plaintiff In Security Negligence Case?
From the above information, we can easily conclude that any victim who wants to prove that a business' security negligent must come up with ample evidence to show past crime or PSI. But you must show the company knew or should have known about the possibility of the crime at the minimum.
The plaintiff will have to collect information about past cases. It is always best that the plaintiff collects information about similar cases. But bear in mind some courts think any crimes in the vicinity of the business should have encouraged security measures.
Security Negligence Cases In Los Angeles.
Los Angeles is one of the most populous regions in the U.S. Crimes are taking place in this area every minute. Were you part of an incident, suffering harm? Also, while at the premises, was your property damaged? If so, you should contact an experienced law firm as soon as possible.
How Do You Avoid Going Alone as an Inadequate Security Victim Without Going Broke?
So let's assume you did your due diligence. You still got assaulted or raped.
Now a legal advocate becomes necessary to assist you in collecting evidence. Also, your lawyer will distill it and present it to a court. No, lawyers are not free, but the better personal injury law firms work on a contingency fee basis.
- So basically they charge no costs or fees in advance and float you for lack of a better word. Basically, instead of going broke, you have a willing partner in your case.
- So now you have a hired gun working on a bounty.
Hence, you have a “partner.” Also, lawyers can help with negotiations with the owner or with insurance companies. Therefore, they can contribute to ensuring that your losses get covered. A property owner takes on a particular responsibility once they rent out their premises.
How Do Dram Shop Laws Apply?
Noteworthy, Dram shop laws are on the books in 42 states and the District of Columbia. These laws hold the owner of the establishment and servers responsible in some cases. And examples include a drunken patron injuring another person inside or even outside of their establishment.
So, in that case, the bar or nightclub owners and servers may be held liable. And this remains true if they permit a patron to become visibly intoxicated at the establishment. But California uses the foreseeability test, not Dramshop laws.
What are the Wrongful Death Dangers?
When there is an incident at a nightclub or bar that kills a patron, it could be from negligence. So, you can sue in wrongful death. Of particular interest, California cases are brought by the spouse, children, grandchildren, domestic partner, other dependents. And the personal representatives of the decedent may also sue.
Two things will determine if damages get awarded to the heirs.
- The monetary loss involves financial support for the victim. This is what the dead person would have provided had they lived. And this will include funeral and burial expenses.
- Non-pecuniary damages are the loss of moral support, comfort, companionship, assistance in Maintenance. And it can include other damages caused by death.
What About Punitive Damages?
- But the one damage that heirs will not usually recover in a wrongful death lawsuit is punitive damages.
What About a Survivor's Action?
- So if the dead person was hospitalized and had medical expenses, the decedent's estate may bring a survivor's lawsuit. This is done on behalf of the deceased victim's estate.
How Do You Protect the Rights of Patrons?
Above, we discussed the various types of cases, statistics, and legal theories lawyers use to prove a negligent security case. Now that you understand more about your rights, you need to make a decision.
- Should you consult with a lawyer?
- We think so.
- An incident resulting in harm can have life-changing consequences.
What is an Example of a Negligent Hiring Case Ehline Had Against Gallagher's Nightclub in Huntington Beach?
In Mary Pfeifer v. Gallaghers, our client tiny female client was choked by a bouncer. Her injuries included cervical lordosis and emotional trauma.
- The plaintiff suffered embarrassment in her community of Huntington Beach, CA. When we demanded the surveillance video hard drive, Ehline forced a result of 50 thousand dollars
So there can be cases where negligence was the basis of the claim. As a consequence, we find those responsible for the fight or altercation.
What Else Can Ehline Law Firm Do to Help You Win?
Also, we can employ private investigators. Also, we collaborate with the police to gather evidence. So we do what is necessary to make your life whole again.
Call Our Attorney Specialists Now!
Our experience in similar cases has helped clients and their families. We take pride in helping people get their lives back on track. Also, these attorneys have expertise in residential and commercial rental laws.
So they have experience countering abuse and oversights by landlords. Call us today for a free, no-pressure consultation. We’ll come anywhere in the state to discuss your case with you. We will even travel to your apartment or storefront.
So we are not asking for any money unless we win for you. Also, we answer our phones and emails at any time of the day or night. Contact us for more information. Call (213) 596-9642.